Re: [PATCH v4 3/9] bpf/btf: Add a function to search a member of a struct/union

From: Google
Date: Tue Aug 01 2023 - 20:21:58 EST

On Tue, 1 Aug 2023 19:09:20 -0400
Steven Rostedt <rostedt@xxxxxxxxxxx> wrote:

> On Tue, 1 Aug 2023 15:18:56 -0700
> Alexei Starovoitov <alexei.starovoitov@xxxxxxxxx> wrote:
> > On Tue, Aug 1, 2023 at 8:32 AM Steven Rostedt <rostedt@xxxxxxxxxxx> wrote:
> > >
> > > On Tue, 1 Aug 2023 11:20:36 -0400
> > > Steven Rostedt <rostedt@xxxxxxxxxxx> wrote:
> > >
> > > > The solution was to come up with ftrace_regs, which just means it has all
> > > > the registers to extract the arguments of a function and nothing more. Most
> > >
> > > This isn't 100% true. The ftrace_regs may hold a fully filled pt_regs. As
> > > the FTRACE_WITH_REGS callbacks still get passed a ftrace_regs pointer. They
> > > will do:
> > >
> > > void callback(..., struct ftrace_regs *fregs) {
> > > struct pt_regs *regs = ftrace_get_regs(fregs);
> > >
> > >
> > > Where ftrace_get_regs() will return the pt_regs only if it is fully filled.
> > > If it is not, then it returns NULL. This was what the x86 maintainers
> > > agreed with.
> >
> > arch/arm64/include/asm/ftrace.h:#define arch_ftrace_get_regs(regs) NULL
> >
> > Ouch. That's very bad.
> > We care a lot about bpf running well on arm64.
> [ Adding Mark and Florent ]
> That's because arm64 doesn't support FTRACE_WITH_REGS anymore. Their
> function handlers only care about the arguments. If you want full regs at
> function entry, then you need to take a breakpoint hit for a full kprobe.
> In fact, fprobes isn't even supported on arm64 because it it doesn't have
> DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS. I believe that was the reason Masami was trying
> to get it to work with ftrace_regs. To get it to work on arm64.

That's right. And I think (agree) pt_regs is too heavy for function entry/exit
because most users needs to access the function arguments or return value.
kprobes is a bit different because it is for instruction level inspection

> Again, ftrace_get_regs(fregs) is only suppose to return something if the
> pt_regs is fully supplied. If they are not, then it must not be used. Are
> you not using a fully filled pt_regs? Because that's what both Thomas and
> Peter (also added) told me not to do!

I guess that the user-land BPF tools (compliers etc.) only generates
bytecode to access registers in pt_regs for kernel probes currently.
This is why you are using "kprobes" as a naming. But I think you can be
more flexible to generate the code to access registers in ftrace_regs.
(because it's just a difference in the offset value)

> Otherwise, ftrace_regs() has support on arm64 for getting to the argument
> registers and the stack. Even live kernel patching now uses ftrace_regs().
> >
> > If you guys decide to convert fprobe to ftrace_regs please
> > make it depend on kconfig or something.
> > bpf side needs full pt_regs.
> Then use kprobes. When I asked Masami what the difference between fprobes
> and kprobes was, he told me that it would be that it would no longer rely
> on the slower FTRACE_WITH_REGS. But currently, it still does.

kprobes needs to keep using pt_regs because software-breakpoint exception
handler gets that. And fprobe is used for bpf multi-kprobe interface,
but I think it can be optional.

So until user-land tool supports the ftrace_regs, you can just disable

Then you can safely use

struct pt_regs *regs = ftrace_get_regs(fregs);

I think we can just replace the CONFIG_FPROBE ifdefs with
CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS in kernel/trace/bpf_trace.c
And that will be the first version of using ftrace_regs in fprobe.

> The reason I started the FTRACE_WITH_ARGS (which gave us ftrace_regs) in
> the first place, was because of the overhead you reported to me with
> ftrace_regs_caller and why you wanted to go the direct trampoline approach.
> That's when I realized I could use a subset because those registers were
> already being saved. The only reason FTRACE_WITH_REGS was created was it
> had to supply full pt_regs (including flags) and emulate a breakpoint for
> the kprobes interface. But in reality, nothing really needs all that.
> > It's not about access to args.
> > pt_regs is passed from bpf prog further into all kinds of perf event
> > functions including stack walking.
> ftrace_regs gives you the stack pointer. Basically, it gives you access to
> anything that is required to be saved to do a function call from fentry.

Yeah, for stack walking, we usually need stack pointer and instruction pointer
or frame pointer. But Alexei made a good point, linux/stacktrace.h provides
pt_regs interaface because pt_regs is a generic (arch-independent) data
structure. (see arch_stack_walk()) We need a new interface for it.

> > I think ORC unwinder might depend on availability of all registers.

This is not correct. ORC uses limited registers (r10, r13, bp, sp, di, dx)
on x86. Anyway, since ftrace can make a stacktrace, it should be possible
to use ORC with ftrace_regs.

> > Other perf helpers might need it too. Like perf_event_output.
> > bpf progs need to access arguments, no doubt about that.
> > If ftrace_regs have them exactly in the same offsets as in pt_regs
> > that might work transparently for bpf progs, but, I'm afraid,
> > it's not the case on all archs.
> > So we need full pt_regs to make sure all paths are still working.
> >
> > Adding Jiri and others.
> Then I recommend that you give up using fprobes and just stick with kprobes
> as that's guaranteed to give you full pt_regs (at the overhead of doing
> things like filing in flags and such). And currently for arm64, fprobes can
> only work with ftrace_regs, without the full pt_regs.

I think we can continue to limit usage of fprobe(kprobe_multi) with
CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS, which can be configured on x86. That will
not change anything from the BPF point of view.

Thank you,

> -- Steve

Masami Hiramatsu (Google) <mhiramat@xxxxxxxxxx>